Petersburg State Universitywhere he served as assistant professor — He became a French citizen in Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Home Science Mathematics. Martin L. White Freelance Writer. See Article History.

Britannica Quiz.


All About Math Quiz. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today.


Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Abel Prizeaward granted annually for research in mathematics, in commemoration of the brilliant 19th-century Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The main purpose of the fund…. Geometrythe branch of mathematics concerned with the shape of individual objects, spatial relationships among various objects, and the properties of surrounding space.

It is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, having arisen in response to such practical problems as those found in surveying, and its name is derived…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.Stalin's Soviet Union might not immediately seem like an ideal place to earn a living as a con artist, and, indeed, if you judge Vladimir Gromov's life by petty metrics like whether he was sentenced to death at the age of thirty-six, then he might have been wiser to seek an alternative profession.

On the other hand, if you judge it by whether he managed to get his death sentence commuted by writing a play about a love affair between a Bolshevik man and a beautiful capitalist woman half his age, which he sent to the deputy procurator-general of the USSR, then things look a bit rosier for Gromov.

Gromov's insight was that the climate of fear, oppressive bureaucracy and ideological rigidity of the early Stalin years was in fact ripe for exploitation—which he managed to do in spades, appearing in a wide variety of guises as an expert engineer or an acclaimed architect, amassing a small fortune along the way.

He realized that the Soviet bureaucracy's unquenchable hunger for documentation left the system with very little capacity to actually check the validity of the reams of paper they were accumulating.

So instead of trying to fly under the radar, he opted to flood the system, stealing or forging documents with wild abandon to enable him to hop between "jobs. Any questions he might face could be deflected with the proper appeals to Bolshevik dogma, and, once he had persuaded somebody to accept his identity, he exploited the intimidating power of status under Stalin to ensure that nobody else would question him—a perfect bullshit feedback loop, enforced by the very authoritarian culture that was supposed to stamp out transgression.

In the words of the historian Golfo Alexopoulos, "He did not avoid the authorities but bombarded them with false employment papers, phony requests for money and goods, and vicious denunciations. He would obviously need his wages advanced and his travel expenses paid up front. By the time the coal mine in Vladivostok realized that their chief engineer had never turned up, Gromov would be somewhere else, already starting on a new "job. The crowning achievement of Gromov's scamming came when he managed to get himself appointed to the exalted role of engineer-architect for a major new fish cannery near the Kazakhstan-China border.

Now, this might not immediately strike you as the world's most glamorous assignment, but in the Soviet Union in the s, it was a really big deal. So much so that Gromov managed to persuade the commissar of supply, Anastas Mikoian, to send him the vast sum of one million rubles, through the cunning technique of asking for two million rubles.

To give you a sense of how much that was, the average yearly salary at the time was just over 1, rubles.

Mikhael Gromov (mathematician)

The Kazakh cannery was the peak of his career, but, unfortunately for Gromov, it was also where his downfall occurred. That's because he made the classic mistake of abandoning his tried-and-trusted methods—namely, the method of bolting before anybody sniffed him out.

This time, Gromov felt that he was onto such a good thing that he decided to stay on the ride and fully embrace his false identity as an engineer-architect. Possibly, he just wanted to put down some roots and actually become the person he was pretending to be.

Maybe the power and money went to his head. Alexopoulos suggests that "perhaps Gromov ceased to be an imposter bynot because he had internalized or come to believe his own lies, but because he viewed those around him at Glavryba's monumental construction project as essentially no different from himself. In other words, if everybody else was faking it, why shouldn't he? But this desire to settle down into his newfound status couldn't actually survive too much contact with the harsh reality that, bluntly, he didn't actually have many skills in the fields of engineering, architecture or fish canning.

Gromov's tactics of denouncing anybody who questioned him as an enemy of Stalinism were effective in the short-term, when he was constantly on the move But even after his arrest and death sentence, he still managed to escape, one last time, turning the creative energies that had fueled his production of imaginary work orders, invoices and telegrams into a more traditional form of fiction.


His prison-produced play, titled Love and Motherlandmay not have been terribly good. In fact, when the procurators passed it on to the head of the playwrights' union for a professional opinion of Gromov's literary merits, it received the kind of critical notice that would terrify any author, never mind one who was relying on a single manuscript to save him from execution. The union man wrote that Gromov's "playwriting ability is extremely low" and that "the work has no ideological or artistic value and is clearly unacceptable from any standpoint.

I think it's fairly safe to say that John Keats would not have coped well with a review like that. And yet, miraculously, it worked. Gromov's death sentence was commuted to ten years of labor. To this day, it remains unclear exactly what could possibly have convinced a senior Soviet official to spare Gromov's life simply on the basis of a play depicting a senior Soviet official as a handsome and heroic figure who bones a hot twenty-three-year-old Parisian woman and converts her to socialism through the power of his ideological and sexual magnetism.

Ah, well—I guess that will just have to remain as one of those inscrutable historical mysteries we will never solve. Tom Phillips is a journalist and writer based in London. He was the editorial director of BuzzFeed U.From tohe was the Governor of Moscow Oblast. During the Soviet war in AfghanistanGromov did three tours of duty —, —, —and was best known for the two years as the last Commander of the 40th Army in Afghanistan.

Gromov was the last Soviet soldier to leave Afghanistan, crossing on foot the Friendship Bridge spanning the Amu-Daria river on 15 Februarythe day the Soviet pullout from Afghanistan was completed. After the Afghan war, he was chosen as a candidate for Vice President by the Communist Party in the Russian presidential election of the candidate for President was former Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov. He was elected in to the State Duma, lower house of Russian parliament.

In January he was elected governor of the Moscow region and re-elected in December Sign In Don't have an account? Categories :. Cancel Save. Governor Boris Gromov. Soviet ArmyRussian Ground Forces. Colonel General. Soviet war in Afghanistan. Governor of Moscow Oblast — This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia view authors.Gromov has won several prizes, including the Abel Prize in "for his revolutionary contributions to geometry".

Gromov studied mathematics at Leningrad State University where he obtained a master's degree ina Doctorate in and defended his Postdoctoral Thesis in His thesis advisor was Vladimir Rokhlin. Gromov married in Inhe was invited to give a presentation at the International Congress of Mathematicians in NiceFrance. However, he was not allowed to leave the USSR. Still, his lecture was published in the conference proceedings. Disagreeing with the Soviet system, he had been thinking of emigrating since the age of In the early s he ceased publication, hoping that this would help his application to move to Israel.

At the same time, he has held professorships at the University of Maryland, College Park from toand at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York since Gromov's style of geometry often features a "coarse" or "soft" viewpoint, analyzing asymptotic or large-scale properties. Motivated by Nash and Kuiper's C 1 embedding theorem and Stephen Smale 's early results, [12] Gromov introduced in the method of convex integration and the h-principlea very general way to solve underdetermined partial differential equations and the basis for a geometric theory of these equations.

One application is the Gromov—Lees Theoremnamed for him and Jack Alexander Leesconcerning Lagrangian immersions and a one-to-one correspondence between the connected components of spaces. InGromov introduced the notion of almost flat manifolds. In contrast, it can be seen by scaling that every closed Riemannian manifold has Riemannian metrics whose sectional curvatures are arbitrarily close to zero.

Gromov showed that if the scaling possibility is broken by only considering Riemannian manifolds of a fixed diameter, then a closed manifold admitting such a Riemannian metric with sectional curvatures sufficiently close to zero must be finitely covered by a nilmanifold. The proof works by replaying the proofs of the Bieberbach theorem and Margulis lemma.

Gromov's proof was given a careful exposition by Peter Buser and Hermann Karcher. InRichard Schoen and Shing-Tung Yau showed that the class of smooth manifolds which admit Riemannian metrics of positive scalar curvature is topologically rich.

In particular, they showed that this class is closed under the operation of connected sum and of surgery in codimension at least three.

Gromov and Blaine Lawson gave another proof of Schoen and Yau's results, making use of elementary geometric constructions. InGromov formally introduced the Gromov—Hausdorff metricwhich endows the set of all metric spaces with the structure of a metric space.

Although this does not give a metric on the space of all metric spaces, it is sufficient in order to define "Gromov-Hausdorff convergence" of a sequence of pointed metric spaces to a limit.

Gromov formulated an important compactness theorem in this setting, giving a condition under which a sequence of pointed and "proper" metric spaces must have a subsequence which converges.

This was later reformulated by Gromov and others into the more flexible notion of an ultralimit.

Mikhael Gromov - 3/6 Probability, symmetry, linearity

Gromov's compactness theorem had a deep impact on the field of geometric group theory. He applied it to understand the asymptotic geometry of the word metric of a group of polynomial growthby taking the limit of well-chosen rescalings of the metric. By tracking the limits of isometries of the word metric, he was able to show that the limiting metric space has unexpected continuities, and in particular that its isometry group is a Lie group.


Using ultralimits, similar asymptotic structures can be studied for more general metric spaces. Along with Eliyahu RipsGromov introduced the notion of hyperbolic groups.

Sergey Gromov

Gromov founded the field of symplectic topology by introducing the theory of pseudoholomorphic curves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov. For other people with the same name, see Gromov. Almost flat manifolds.

Miscellaneous mathematics

Differential Geom. Mikhael Gromov and H.From tohe was the Governor of Moscow Oblast. During the Soviet—Afghan WarGromov did three tours of duty —, —, —and was best known for the two years as the last Commander of the 40th Army in Afghanistan. Gromov was the last Soviet soldier to leave Afghanistan, crossing on foot the Friendship Bridge spanning the Amu-Daria river on 15 Februarythe day the Soviet pullout from Afghanistan was completed.

After the Afghan War, he was chosen as a candidate for Vice President by the Communist Party in the Russian presidential election of the candidate for President was former Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov. He was electedinto the State Dumalower house of the Russian parliament. In Januaryhe was elected governor of the Moscow region and re-elected in December From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of referencesrelated reading or external linksbut its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Candidates in the Russian presidential election. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Wikimedia Commons. Boris Gromov as governor in Soviet ArmyRussian Ground Forces. Hero of the Soviet Union. Governor of Moscow Oblast —How to profit from technology and hunt for the next consumer stars like Fever-Tree 'Be fearful when others are greedy and greedy when others are fearful', said Warren Buffett.

Which should investors be right now. As house prices slow and tax hikes bite, is buy-to-let still worth doing. How to invest and achieve long-term returns that beat inflation and low savings rates 'Private investors have an advantage': Gervais Williams's tips to pick the best small company shares Britain is leaving the EU, but should Brexit-hit investors go the other way.

Are stockmarkets too expensive to invest right now. Should you invest in India. It's not fixed yet, warns Tom Becket Tips to choose the best funds for your Isa Can you profit from the growing Chinese middle-class. We meet Fidelity China Special Situations manager Dale Nicholls adverts. We put the improved i3S to the test. Can I leave the British Steel pension scheme.

My state pension is made up of basic, Serps and graduated parts: why do they increase at different annual rates. I'm retired but bored - would going back to work part-time hit my pension payouts.

Why must I pay big fees to a financial adviser to move my pension. How do I ensure my children inherit my pension if I die young. I've been saving for years: Steve Webb replies Should my pub cleaner friend paid cash 'off the books' become self-employed to pay NI towards a state pension.

The new DS7 Crossback is aimed as a Gallic riposte to the dominant German, Japanese and British upmarket. Four biggest high street banks ditch 37 cash machines a WEEK amid a wave of branch closures in profits. Bitcoin mining 'is using so much energy that it is causing electricity blackouts' amid fears it will consume. ALEX BRUMMER: Rise of the internet economy is driving end-of-year surge for bids and deals BIG SHOT OF THE WEEK: Terra Firma boss Guy Hands is nowhere near as shambolic as his appearance would.

Asda to axe 800 jobs and cut workers' hours as it battles discounters Aldi and Lidl SHARE PUNT OF THE WEEK: Accesso Technology provides queuing and ticketing solutions for attractions Where are landlords raking in the biggest profits.

The map that reveals where Britain's buy-to-let hotspots. We look at what it would mean for our jobs, planet - and how we need to prepare NOW Will economists be able to see the next financial crisis coming. They didn't see the last one. What is the FTSE 100. Investor and MP John Redwood explains what it is and why it matters to you even if you don't invest Why do asset prices move. Is it just down to investors reacting to the news or is there something else at play.I was very pleased with the whole experience.

My thanks to Kolbrun who was always quick to reply to my emails and questions. She was very helpful throughout. I liked the hotels selected and the locations they were in. Overall the holiday was a great success and I am sure at some stage we will book another holiday through yourselves.

The map provided to us highlighting the route and where the hotels were located, as well as attractions, was extremely helpful. The itinerary was well planned and we never felt rushed. We really enjoyed your wonderful country.

We asked Alexandra to try to get us the best rooms possible that were also quiet, if possible. It was obvious that she had done so at every destination. She asked us what we wanted, listened, asked a few good questions and then did her best to find us what we asked for and we were very pleased with the results. The materials provided by Nordic Visitor were fantastic. We used the maps and the brochures and the itinerary and read every suggestion. The map with a suggested driving route to each of our marked hotels was very helpful.

We were very, very well prepared for this trip because of the outstanding work done and materials provided by Nordic Visitor. The trip was planned for us (based on what we wanted to do) and all of the details had been taken care of for us. The route was planned, the hotel reservations were made, we had books and maps sent to us and we were provided with a phone and GPS.

Working with Alexandra was just a pleasure. From the very first email I sent of inquiry about the possibility of booking a trip with Nordic Visitor until the email I sent at the end of our trip asking if we could change our shuttle pickup time at the hotel, she was helpful, knowledgeable, responsive and always cheerful.

Thanks to Alexandra and Nordic Visitor, this was one of the best planned and organized trips we have ever taken. Nothing went wrong, but I have every confidence that Nordic Visitor would have helped us had there been any problems. I have no recommendations for how Nordic Visitor could improve what it does and that is unusual for me. My expectations are high, and they were surpassed. Our trip to Iceland was unforgettable. Everything from the accommodations, to the rental car, to the travel documents exceeded our expectations.

Jelena was fabulous and truly put our minds at ease answering any and all questions. We were blown away by the beauty of Iceland and the incredibly warm people. Everything was incredible, and we can't wait to return.

It was a thoroughly-planned trip from A to Z with many options to select from and add to the trip depending on the location.